Profile of Odisha
Odisha, bounded on the west by the thickly forested hills of the Eastern Ghats and on the east by nearly 500 km coastline of the Bay of Bengal, is a beautiful state covering an area of 156, 000 sq. kms. It is surrounded by Jharkhand on the north, West Bengal on the north-east Andhra Pradesh on the south and Chhattisgarh on the west. Odisha is one of the prosperous states of India owing to its fertile land and rich mineral resources viz. coal, iron and bauxite. The state is booming towards a big industrial growth in the near future.
Odisha is also emerging as a player in outsourcing IT and IT services. Odisha, referred to as “The Soul of India”, is a mystical land where the past and the modern today form a harmonious blend. The state is filled with awe inspiring monuments, thousands of master craftsmen and artists, numerous wildlife sanctuaries, stunning natural landscapes and many more…
Let’s rediscover the Soul of India…
History of Odisha
The history of Odisha dates back to the Lower Paleolithic era. Acheulian tools of Lower Paleolithic era have been discovered in many parts of the region. There are only a few mentions about present day Odisha in ancient epics like Mahabharata, Maha Govinda Sutta and some Puranas. In 261 BCE Odisha witnessed a famous and bloody wars of history – “Kalinga War” in which Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty conquered the region. The war was directly or indirectly was the reason for spread of Buddhism in Asia.
About 140 million years ago Odisha, was a part of the Gondwana supercontinent. Rocks belonging to Precambrian times are found in Orissa. Famous rock Mayurbhanj granite pluton found in Odisha have been dated to 3.09 billion years ago.The coal-fields of Mahanadi and Ib river basins are the richest fossil sites. In some of the districts of Odisha like Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, Sundargarh and Sambalpur, Acheulian tools dating to Lower Paleolithic times have been found.
Ancient History of Odisha
Odisha has a vast ancient history. According to sculptures, Mahabharta and some puranas King Bali after many prayers had 5 sons named Anga, Sumha, Vanga, Pundra and Kalinga. They conquered regions and named them after themselves. The prince Vanga founded Vanga kingdom, now a part of Bangladesh and West Bengal. In 261 BCE king of Mauryan dynasty Ashoka conquered Kalinga in the Kalinga War. This bloody war took the lives of about 1,000,000 people, 1,500,000 were captured and several others affected. The bloodshed of the war turned king Ashoka into a pacifist and converted to Buddhism. During the period of Maurya emperor Ashoka, Kalahandi, Koraput and Bastar region was known as Atavi Land during the heydays of Mauryan empire.As per Ashokan record Atvai land remained unconquered . Kalinga saw the rule of Mahameghavana who established Mahameghavahana dynasty in Kalinga, Kharavela who was the third ruler of the dynasty.
Hathigumpha inscription in Udayagiri near Bhubaneswar are the rich source of information about Kharavela , the third ruler of the dynasty. Gautamiputra Satkarni of Satavahana dynasty also conquered and ruled over few areas of the region. The Kushana empire also ruled Kalinga as evident from the coins found at several places in Jaugada, Sisupalgarh and Gurubai in Manikapatana (Puri). Samudragupta also conquered the region. Odisha at one point of time alkso formed part of Harsha's empire. The famous Jagannath Temple at Puri was first built by the king Jajati Kesari I of Kesari or Soma dynasty of Kosala who united Kosala and Utkala into a single empire. But the real credit for the current structure of the temple goes to Kings Choda Gangadeva and Ananga Bhimadeva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty in the 12th century. A lot is known about the dynasty from inscriptions on copper plates and coins. Indravarman I is believed to be the first king of the Eastern Ganga dynasty. Orissa was once conquered by Raja Raja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the early 11th century.
Medieval History of Odisha
In Medieval era in around 1435 Kapilendra Deva after the decline of Eastern Ganga King, Bhanudeva IV Orissa established Gajapati Dynasty also known as a Suryavamsi dynasty. In 1541 Bhoi Dynasty was founded by Govinda Vidyadhara. In 1559 Mukunda Deva came to throne. 1568 saw Mukunda Deva as the last independent ruler of Orissa. In 1568, Orissa came under Sulaiman Khan Karrani the ruler of Sultanate of Bengal of Karrani dynasty. In 1590, Qutlu Khan Lohani, officer of Daud, assumed the title of "Qutlu Shah. in 1606 Quasim Khan was appointed the governor of Orissa. In 1628 Muhammad Baqar Khan was appointed the governor of Orissa by Shah Jahan who was then the Mughal emperor.
Modern History of Odisha
The Portuguese who were the first Europeans to build factories in Pipili in Balasore district of Orissa. In 1633 with the permission of the Mughal administrator, Britishers settled in then Hariharpur which is now Jagatsinghpur to trade cotton goods. Their subsequent establishment at Baleshwar (or Balasore) on river Burhabalanga and at Pipili on river Subarnarekha developed into flourishing centres of trade as well as of power. According to William Wilson Hunter, the English historian, it was those two Orissa harbours which became the basis of the future greatness of the British in Bengal. The Battle of Plassey and Buxar helped the British to establish their colony in India; Thereafter they acquired as much of Indian territories as possible, and Orissa being close to Bengal automatically came under their control.
The leaders of Odisha had taken active participation in the freedom struggle of India. The eminent political leaders like Utkal Gourab Madhusudan Das, Harekrushna Mahtab, Gopabandhu Choudhury, Nabakrushna Choudhury and others promoted the Congress Movement in Orissa. They demanded for a separate provincial status to the state. The demand was fulfilled in 1936. Although Odisha province came into existence on 1st April 1936 but it was declared as a separate state of Indian Union only after India’s independence i.e. in 1949. Modern Odisha, with its potential economic resources in the form of abundant minerals, extensive forests and fertile lands, is making great stride towards develpment.
After India Independence
After India independence in 27 May 1947, Harekrushna Mahatab took oath as a congress minster in Orissa. Bhubaneswar had replaced Cuttack as the political capital of the state of Odisha on 13 April 1948. On 20 February 2014, Oriya language became the official language of Odisha.
odisshaOdisha is an Indian state on eastern part of the subcontinent. Odisha was formely known by the name “Orissa”. The neighbouring states of Odisha are Jharkhand on its north, Chhattisgarh on west and north-west, West Bengal on north-east, and Andhra Pradesh on south. About 480 km of coastline stretching across Bay of Bengal lies on the eastern end of Odisha. Odisha in ancient times was the famous kingdom of Kalinga. Orissa was then born in 1 April 1936, as a province in British India. Since then 1 April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa. In our national anthem "Jana Gana Mana" Odisha is known by the name Utkala. On 13 April 1948 the state capital of Odisha was replaced to Bhubaneswar from Cuttak. Cuttak was the state capital of Odisha for over 8 centuries.Odisha is currently the 9th largest state of India. It is the 11th most populated state of India. Oriya is the official language of the state. Odisha is one of the most flourishing state of India with a high economic growth, rich culture and enormous tourist destinations.
The Kalinga war is one of the major and bloodiest battles in world history. The bloodshed of this war is said to have prompted Mauryan Emperor Ashoka to adopt Buddhism.
Tel river civilization with its capital at Asurgarh was a great civilization existing in Kalahandi, Balangir, Koraput (KBK) region.
Kalahandi along with Koraput and Bastar was part of Kantara referred in Ramayana and Mahabharata
.Deomali (1672 m) in Koraput district is the highest mountain peak in the state.
Geography and Climate of Odisha
Odisha, located in the eastern coast of India is a state with immense potential in natural resources. It is located
between 17.49'N and 22.34'N latitudes and between 81.27'E and 87.29'E
longitudes. The state is touched by the Bay of Bengal on the east; Madhya Pradesh
on the west and Andhra Pradesh on the south. It has a coast line of
about 500 kms. It spreads over an area of 155,707 square kms.Odisha, owing to its proximity
towards the sea experience a typical tropical climate which is
characterized by very hot climate during summer and maximum rainfall
during monsoon season. The winter season is ideal for visitors and tourists.
are three main seasons experienced in Odisha – summer, monsoon and
winter. The summer season starts from March to June, Rainy season from
July to September and winter season
from October to February. However, locally there are six seasons:
Grishma, Varsha, Sharata, Hemanta, Sisira, Vasanta. Every season has its
own charm. Rainy season starts from mid June and lasts till
October. Monsoon rains have very much importance for crop production.
But excessive rains create flood and damage crops and houses. The
coastal areas of the state experience cyclone and tornado during monsoon
season. The cyclonic storms originate in the Bay of Bengal often cross
the east coast between Paradeep and Chandbali. Odisha can be
visited round the year. However, the best season is the winter from
September to March. Tourists visiting to Odisha are advised to bring
light weight cotton clothing which is ideal for hot and humid summer as
well as rainy seasons. Where as Warm clothings like jackets, sweaters
and coats can take care of the warm winters.
Chilika Lake is the largest coastal lake in India and the second largest in the world.
Beaches of Odisha is the major nesting grounds for the olive ridley sea turtles.
Odisha is subjected to various cyclones and allied weather disturbances.
Mahanadi is one of the major river passing through Odisha.
Bay of Bengal washes the shores of Odisha. Sudarshan Pattnaik of Odisha is one of the major world-class artists of sand sculpture.
Economy and Industrialization in Odisha
of the total population lives on farming and cultivation. Hence
agriculture is the backbone of Odisha’s economy. Apart
from that, Industries play a crucial role in the economic development
of the state. Because of its mineral wealth and strategic location it
attracts foreign investment in steel, aluminum, power, refineries, and
infrastructure. Odisha is also emerging as a player in the outsourcing
IT (Information Technology)
and IT services industry. The total planned investment in the state is
projected to be 90 billion U.S. dollars. India’s gross state domestic
product in 1980 was just Rs.37, 080 million which reached a whopping
figure of Rs.387, 280 million in 2000. Recently, the Central
Government has agreed to accord SEZ (Special Economic Zone) status to
eight sites in Orissa among which are Infocity at Bhubaneswar and
Paradip. The Government of Orissa has formulated a liberal industrial policy known as “Industrial
Policy 2001”. The policy focuses on various avenues where Orissa has
the expertise e.g., minerals, Tourism, IT and Village Industries etc. Areas of industrial growth
- Mineral processing and value addition
- Downstream industries in steel, aluminum & petro-chemical sectors
- Chemicals & fertilisers
- Agro & food processing industries
- Handicrafts & handloom
- Export oriented industries
- IT industries
With various initiatives taken by the state as well as the
central government, the state is marching ahead to become a major player
in the Indian economy. With abundance of mineral resources, long
coastline, inland waters, the
varied bio-diversity of its forests and a rich cultural heritage, Odisha
is soon to become a privileged destination for industrial investment.In
the past few years the govt. of Odisha has been encouraging industrial
houses to for the establishment of new industrial
units in backward areas of the state. Since Independence 49 large Scale
industries have been setup in public and Private Sector in the state,
of which most of them are mineral based. Apart from that there are many
small and medium scale industries located in various parts of the state.
Recently a large number of companies have signed MoUs to set up their
steel plants in Odisha.
Odisha is growing
continuously in economy and industrialization, rather the economic
growth of Odisha is more than the growth rate of India as a whole.many
new industries have come up and are coming up in Odisha. Increasing the
living standard and job opportunities in the state.
Places of Interest in Odisha
Odisha is one of the most visited place by the tourists. There are a number of tourist sites in Odisha inviting a number of tourists to them. There are a number of temples, sight seeing, beaches, wildlife and much more in Odisha and that too for all ages. Puri is one of the most famous places for its temples.Some of the major places of interest in Odisha are Chilka, Konark Temple, Udayagiri Caves, Jagannath Temple, Bhitarakanika, and Mahendragiri.
Temples in Odisha
The Jagannath Temple located in Puri and is one of the most famous and most visited temple dedicated to lord Jagannath. There are a number of other temples in Puri. The Jagannath temple is also famous for its maha prasadam and the yearly held Jagannath Yatra. The Sun Temple situated at Konark is another most famous temples Odisha. It forms one of the point of famous "Golden Triangle of Tourism". The other two spots being the temple city of Bhubaneshwar and Lord Jagannath's home, Puri.
Gundicha Ghar Temple is located in Puri and is another favorite tourist spot in Puri after Konark Sun Temple.Loknath Temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva Loknath and is famous for its outstanding architecture.Daria Hanuman and Sonar Gouranga Temple are kn own for their sacred surroundings and pristine beauty.
Waterbodies in Odisha
Chilika Lake, is famous as the largest coastal lake in India and the second largest in the world. It is a brackish water coastal lake on the Bay of Bengal on the south of the mouth of the Mahanadi river. With an astounding scenic beauty Chilka lake located in south-west of Puri is one of the major tourist site in Odisha. The length of the lake is 70 kms, while its width is 15 kms.Variety of migratory birds come here during the months of winter which forms the delight to many tourists. These different species of birds mainly come from Siberia. Apart fom Chilka Lakes there are many other waterbodies in forms of waterfalls rivers that appeals tpo the tourists visiting Odisha. Chandipur Beach, Gopalpur-on-Sea, Konark Beach along with other beautiful beaches add to the attractions of the tourists visiting Odisha.
Wildlife in Odisha
For all those looking to explore wildlife in Odisha, Bhitarakanika wildlife sanctuary is a must visit option. It is home to number of migratory birds, plants and animals, and is a must-visit for the nature-lovers. About 170 different varieties of migratory birds comes here especially during winters. Some of the birds that are found here are sea eagles, kingfishers, whistling teals, sand pipers, open-billed storks, kites, darters and sea gulls.Some of the wild animals found here are crocodiles, king cobras, pythons, spotted deer, wild pigs, rhesus monkeys and sambars. There is a breeding farm for crocodiles in Bhitarakanika. The white crocodile sankhua, a rare species of crocodile is found here. The Gharial Sanctuary at Tikarpada and the Olive Ridley Sea Turtles in Gahirmatha Turtle Sanctuary can also be visited while traveling to Odisha. The city wildlife sanctuaries of Chandaka and Nandankanan Zoological Park are famous for housing wild varieties of flora and fauna.
Rock Cut Caves in Odisha
Khandigiri caves are located at a
distance of six kilometers from Bhubaneshwar. The Khandagiri caves are
one of the major tourist attraction of Odisha giving an insight of
Odisha’s glorious and religious history. There are a total of fifteen
caves in Khandagiri caves. these caves were long ago inhabited by Jain
scholars and hermits. The walls of the rock cut temples are designed
with beautiful paintings and motifs. the walls in Khandagiri caves have
inscriptions of the holy texts of the Jains. Another famous cave is
Udayagiri Caves which contains a total of eighteen rock cut caves. These
caves are a complete insight to religious legacy of the ancient times.
These caves are located at a height of 135 feet. The Udaygiri hills
were known as Kumari Parvata during the ancient period.The caves of
Udaygiri sheltered the Jain saints who had come in search of truth and
The walls of the Udaygiri caves are inscribed with beautiful
paintings. These paintings features mainly human beings and animals.
the walls in Udaygiri Caves have inscriptions of the holy texts of the
Jains.Every cave of Udaygiri is given a distinct name. is the most
impressive of Them is the double storied cave of Rani Gumpha. It is also
known as Queen Cave. the walls and doors of this cave are decorated
with brilliant carving work. the carvings of this cave depits the
victory of their kings over the enemies.
Mahendragiri is situated in the Parlakhemundi area of Gajapati district. Located at an altitude of 5000 feet above the sea level, Mahendragiri is famous for the breathtaking view of the picturesque surrounding regions. It is a delight to nature lovers. Mahendragiri includes lush evergreen forests, Exotic mountain ranges, the swift flowing rivulet of Mahendra Tanaya. the pleasant weather of Mahendragiri adds a cherry on the top. Mahendragiri is also related to rich religious and mythical history of the region. Radhanath Ray and Kalidas the unbeatable poets have composed many poems in praise of the beauty this place. The ancient site of Mahendragiri reflects the antiquity of the beautiful place. Away from the maddening crowd of the city it is a best place to relax amidst nature.
The capital and largest city of the state is Bhubaneswar.
Paradip Port on the Bay of Bengal is one of the major port on the east coast of India
Temples and Sea beaches are major attractions of Odisha.
Konark Sun Temple is a masterpiece in Odisha architecture.
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves are examples of oldest rock cut caves in Odisha.
Bhitarkanika National Park is famous for its second largest mangrove ecosystem.The kitchen Jagannath Temple, Puri is reputed to be the largest in the world.
Demography of Odisha
The total population of Odisha according to 2011cesus was 41,947,358. It stands at 11th position among States and Union territories of India. The population of Odisha in last decade rose at an average rate of 13.97% . The sex ratio of population was recorded as 978 females per thousand males. The male and female literacy rates were 73.3% with 82% of males and 64% of females being literate. Female literacy rate needed to be taken care of and needed an improvement.
Culture of Odisha
The culture of Odisha is largely influenced by Hinduism, Buddhism and
Jainism. The culture of Odisha is also to a great extent influenced by
the culture of the tribes of Odisha. Oriya is the official language of Odisha and is spoken by the majority of the people of the state. English majorly used for official purpose and Oriya is used as regional language. Odissi is the regional classical dance form which originated in Odisha. On the basis of archaeological evidence Odissi is the oldest dance form of India which originated in Odisha and still flourishing.
Odisha is very rich in literature. The Oddey literature can largely be classified into five stages or ages: Old Oriya (900–1300 AD), Early Middle Oriya (1300–1500 AD), Middle Oriya (1500–1700 AD), Late Middle Oriya (1700 AD–1850 AD) and Modern Oriya (from 1850 AD to the present). Some of the most important literature includes the work of Natya Manorama, Gita Prakasha, Sangitamava Chandrika and Sangita Kalalata.The cinema of Odisha after having a very slow start is growing every year and becoming famous throughout India as people are liking Ollywood movies now. The first Oriya film Sita Bibaha was made in 1936, and till 1951 only two films were produced.
Crafts of Odisha
Odisha is a treasure chest to pick up mementos and souvenirs, for
everyone and for all budgets. The exquisite silver filigree work of
Cuttack , the glorious hand woven fabrics from Sambalpur, the multi
colored wall hangings of Pipli and the intricate paintings of
Raghurajpur , are the biggest shoppers delight.Applique Work
Applique work or Chandua catch one's eyes at the very
first sight. Applique objects can be bought from Utkalika - State
Emporium in both Bhubaneswar and Delhi. The smaller items can also be
purchased from Pipli workshops, purchasing directly from the craftsmen
or from the cooperative shop there. Pipli is the birth place of applique
Silver Filigree or Tarakashi,
requires a great intricacy. The silver filigree is from Cuttack, one can
shop for these distinctive art from Nayasarak and Balu Bazaar of
Cuttak. Silver Filigree work is done using 90% or more pure silver.
silver items are sold by weight.Wood Work
wood workWood sculpture
or the wood carving work attracts a lot of shopaholics to Odisha.
Images of gods and goddesses, masks, toys, animals like peacocks,
elephants, and horses, boxes and bowls are some of the most prominent
wood work items that can be found in Odisha. Unpainted carvings on pale
wood especially of models of temple sculpture is also cherished highly
by the tourists. Other wood work done on plain wood include bowls,
pitchers, glasses, and lamps. One can find intricate wood work items
Puri, Bargarh, and Cuttack.Weaving Work
A number of weavers all
around Odisha create "Ikat" fabrics they use 'tie and dye' technique in
Orissa is called as bandha. Bundle of yarns are firstly dyed in
predetermined colour scheme with extraordinary precision. When the
threads are woven designs appear on the fabric as if some magic
happened. Each region have their own distinctive style, and make
different types of textiles.Metallic Work
The glittering bell
metal of Odisha. The dhokra metal castings, is a very famous and
important traditional tribal craft, this is done using bronze, by the
lost-wax casting method. You can visit Kuliana (Mayurbhanj) , Sadei
Bareni, and Kaimati (Keonjhar) (Dhenkanal) to shop for these craft. For
Brass and bell metal work one can explore Kantilo (Puri) and Remuna
(Balasore) markets. The famous flexible fish is made at Belguntha in
paintingThe famous 'pata chitra' can be
shopped in and around Puri. the village of Raghurajpur and
Chitrakarasahi, welcome tourists to explore a dozens of galleries and
houses, buying and surveying the beautiful art. circular playing cards
known as ganjapas is another very much liked art of the area .
on palm-leaf done by using etching technique by stringing together
rows of the rectangular leaves. They are folded into a pile, then opened
up like a fan.Stone Carving
Stone Carving is an ancient
and a lot appreaciated form of art of Odisha. It is prevelant Since 6th
century onwards. Odisha has a wealth of stone sculptural. Have a visit
to Bhubaneswar, Buddhist site of Lalitgiri in Cuttack district, Khiching
and in Puri.Sea Shell Work
On the coastal areas and sea beaches
like Gopalpur beach, Puri Sea Beach, Konark beach, Chandipur beach, one
can find different things made of sea shells like mirrors, lamps,
lighthouses, tables, stands to small small gift items. A variety of sea
shells like Coquina, Calico Scallops, Fighting Conch, Tulip Shells, Cats
Eye, Prickly Cockle, Tinted Cantharus, Jingle Shells, Lightning Whelk,
Olive Shells, Slipper Shell, Turban Shells, Jewelery Box, Turkey Wing
Shells, Modulus, Auger , Van Hyning's Cockle , Bubble Shell etc are
available in the market.
Transportation in Odisha
Odisha has a good network of roads, railways, airports and seaports. Bhubaneswar the capital city of Odisha is well connected by air, rail and road with the rest of India. There is a constant improvement in the means and modes of transport in Odisha. The railways , roadways, airways and waterways are progressing every day.
Air connectivity to Odisha
Odisha has in all 17 airstrips and 16 helipads. The Government of Odisha recently have plans to develop domestic airport at Jharsuguda. To boost intra-State and inter-State civil aviation greenfield airports at Paradip, Rayagada, Angul, Dhamra, and Kalinganagar were upgraded. the aerodromes at Jharsuguda, Gopalpur, Barbil and Rourkela were also to be upgraded. The most famous is the international airport at Bhubaneshwar.Biju Patnaik International Airport
Location: Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
ICAO: VEBSBrahmapur Airport
Location: Brahmapur (India)
Roadways in Odisha
Odisha State Roads Project (O.S.R.P) is a World Bank Funded Project taking up the new projects and building new roads across Odisha. The Project Development Objective (PDO) constantly works towards the removal of transport bottlenecks for greater investment and economic and social development activities in the State of Odisha. The different cities of Odisha are well connected with each other by roadways. The present capital city Bhubaneshwar and previous capital Cuttack are so well connected by roadways that they are now as the twin cities. The Bhubhaneshwar is connected to many other cities of the state as well as around the country by roadways.
Railways in Odisha
The cities of Odisha are well connected with other cities of the state and the country by railways. East Coast Railway (ECoR) with headquarters at Bhubaneswar covers major part of railways in Odisha. South Eastern Railway and South East Central Railway are other two zones operating railway services in Odisha.. There are many trains running in and out of Odisha regularly providing it a very good rail connectivity with other parts of India. Many long distance and short distance trains are regularly available from all the major cities of Odisha.
Waterways in Odisha
Odisha haves a 480 Kms. coast line with 13 potential sites for development of Minor Ports. A new Directorate of “Ports & Inland Water Transport” is formed by Government For better management of the port sector and Inland WaterTransport Mechanism. Gopalpur Port Project was initated for the management of Gopalpur Port in the year 1980. the headquarters of the project are at Arjipalli in Ganjam district. The Inland Water Transport Directorate was started in the year 1973 with its headquarters at Cuttack.
Sports in Odisha
Sports has always occupied a significant position in the lifestyle of Odisha. A number of different sports from athletics to cricket to hockey to chess to soccer to kabaddi and much more are very popular in Odisha.Odisha has produced some of the famous hockey players of national repute like Ignes Tirkey Dilip Tirkey, and Lajrus Barla. Kabaddi Is one of the most common and widely played traditional sportsin Odisha. Gilli Danda, Rasi Tana(RopePulling) are other traditional games of Odisha.Kho Kho is not only a famous and traditional game of Odisha, but is
largely liked and played by the people of different areas of India. Barabati Stadiums and Kalinga Stadiums are two famous stadiums of Odisha where major sporting events are held. Apart from these manu sporting events and tournaments are help throughout the years to boost the sporting activities in the state.
The state also has share in adventure sports. Because of the ample of water sources Odisha offers canoeing and
boating. Dhabaleswar and Barkul are the best places in Odisha for
canoeing and boating.The beaches of Odisha like Gopalpur, Chandipur Beach etc. offer great surfing opportunities. Odisha
also offers other adventurous activities like wind surfing, swimming,
hiking, camping etc. The sports play a very important role in Odisha in
bringing people together. They are very important in different
festivals. The sports have been a very important part of ancient history
of Odisha. The state has many ideal places for trekkers and mountain lovers. Trekking cam be done to a height of about 1600m in Odisha. Some of trekking places in Odisha are Nilagiri Trek, Gandhamardan Trek and Mahendragiri Trek. the best time for trekking in Odisha is January.